-Handbook of machine tools, Manfred Weck, New York: Wiley, c (Volume 1, 2,3,4) Manufacturing technology constitutes all methods used for shaping the. A material removal process in which a sharp cutting tool is used to mechanically cut away material so that the desired part geometry remains. •Most common. from book Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology The machine tools are discussed and categorized based on the.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Youssef, Helmi A. Machining technology: machine tools and operations / Helmi A. Youssef, Hassan El-Hofy. Machinists must have a sound understanding of basic and advanced machining technology, which includes: • Proficiency in safely operating machine tools of. PROGRAMS OF STUDY – MACHINE TOOL TECHNOLOGY. Page of August MACHINE TOOL TECHNOLOGY. CNC Technology Diploma (CT12 ).
Thread machining by cutting and grinding methods are described, together with thread cutting machines and cutting tools. In Chapter 5, common types of gears are listed and their applications described. Gear production by machining methods that include cutting, grinding, and lapping are described, together with their corresponding machine tools and operations. Machine components, features, and applications are described.
Machine Tool Technology Basics (CD-ROM in PDF)
Tool layouts for bar-type capstan lathes and chucking-type turret lathes are described and solved examples are given. Semiautomatic and automatic lathes are discussed in Chapter 7. Machine tool features, components, operation, tooling, and industrial applications are described. Solved examples for typical products that show process layout and cam design are given for turret-type and long-part automatics.
Chapter 8 presents computer numerical controlled machine tools, their merits, and their industrial applications. The basic features of such machines, tooling arrangements, and programming principles and examples are illustrated in case of machining and turning centers. Hexapod mechanisms, design features, constructional elements, characteristics, control, and their applications in traditional and nontraditional machining, manufacturing, and robotics are covered in Chapter 9.
Chapter 10 describes the fundamentals, instrumentation, and operation of machine tool dynamometers used for cutting force measurements. Examples of turning, drilling, milling, and grinding dynamometers are explained. Chapter 11 presents modern machine tools and operations for mechanical nontraditional machining processes, such as ultrasonic and jet machining.
Chemical milling, electrochemical machining, and electrochemical grinding machine tools are also described, along with the machine tools for thermal processes such as electrodischarge, laser beam, electron beam, and plasma arc machining. Machine tools, basic elements, accessories, operations, removal rate, accuracy, and surface integrity are covered for each case. Environment-friendly machine tools and operations are described in Chapter 12; these tend to detect the source of hazards and minimize their effect on the operator, machine tools, and environment.
An introduction to design recommendations for economic machining and sources of dimensional variations by traditional and nontraditional processes is covered in Chapter Dimensional accuracy and surface integrity by traditional and nontraditional machining processes are discussed in Chapter Sources of surface alterations, their effects on the functional properties of machined parts, and recommendations for minimizing surface effects are also given.
Chapter 15 covers the fundamentals and applications of computer-integrated manufacturing, lean production, adaptive control, just-in-time manufacturing systems, smart manufacturing, artificial intelligence, and the factory of the future. Presents a wide spectrum of the machining technologies, machine tools, and operations used in manufacturing industries 2.
Covers a wide range of abrasive machining and finishing technologies 3. Presents the nontraditional machine tools and processes 4. Provides coverage for CNC, hexapod technologies, and computer-aided manufacturing 5. Introduces the principles of ecological machining 6. Discusses the economics of design for machining, machining accuracy, and surface integrity aspects by the different machining techniques 7. Presents very useful technical data that help in solving and analysis of day-to-day shop floor problems 8.
Undergraduate students enrolled in mechanical, industrial, manufacturing, materials, and production engineering programs 2. Professional engineers 3.
Industrial companies 4. Until the s, researchers used the finite element method FEM for machine tool thermal deformation calculations and the optimization of the design of machine tools.
Machine Tool Technology
The CNC thermal error compensation technology appeared in the late s. After the s, thermal error compensation technology rapidly developed, and many research institutions conducted in-depth studies on the thermal error compensation technology of CNC machine tools based on temperature measurements [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ]. First, extensive experiments are carried out on the CNC machine tools, that collect the CNC data, body temperature of the machine tool, ambient temperature, and the thermal error of the cutting tool tip, in order to establish the thermal error prediction models that are always the multiple linear regression MLR model, artificial neural network ANN model, and genetic algorithm GA model, etc.
These standards provide systemic analysis methods for machine tool thermal behavior. Compared to small and medium-sized CNC machine tools, heavy-duty CNC machine tools have unique structural and thermal characteristics, including the following items: 1 Larger and heavier moving parts, like the spindle box, moving beam, and moving workbench; Larger and more complex support structures, such as the machine tool base, column, and beam; More decentralized internal heat sources in 3-D 3-dimensional space; Greater susceptibility to environmental temperature shifts.
As the temperature varies over time and the moving parts are heavy, the thermal and mechanical errors exist a strong coupling effect, making the thermal deformation mechanism more complicated and the optimization of the structural design more difficult.
As heavy-duty CNC machine tools are more susceptible to environmental temperature shifts due to the large volume, small changes of environmental temperature can cause noteworthy accumulations of thermal expansion of the machine tool structure in 3-D space , the robustness of the thermal error prediction model of heavy-duty CNC machine tools is more difficult to control.
Monitoring technologies related to the thermal error study of heavy-duty CNC machine tools are important foundation of the research on the machine tool thermal error mechanism and the establishment of a thermal error prediction model.
These monitoring technologies include the temperature field monitoring technologies and the thermal deformation monitoring technologies. Further, the thermal deformation monitoring consists of the position error monitoring of the cutting tool tip and the thermal deformation field monitoring of the large structural parts of the machine tool.
Because of the unique structural and thermal characteristics of the heavy-duty CNC machine tools mentioned above, there are lots of differences between the heavy-duty machine tool and other machine tools for thermal error monitoring, which can be concluded in three aspects: 1 In terms of temperature field monitoring, as heavy-duty CNC machine tools have a large volume and dispersive heat sources, more temperature measuring points are needed in order to establish an accurate temperature field distribution.
Additionally, the installation positions of temperature sensors are more difficult to determine, and the optimization of the temperature measuring points is more complex; 2 In terms of thermal deformation monitoring, there are lots of similarity in position error monitoring of the cutting tool tip between the heavy-duty machine tool and other machine tools.
However, for thermal deformation field monitoring of the large structural parts, the Heavy-duty CNC machine tools face greater challenges. These methods estimate the deformation by the interpolation method.
Machine Tool Technology Diploma
As the structural parts of the heavy-duty CNC machine tool are larger, more conventional displacement sensors or displacement measurement instruments with wide measurement range in the space are needed to reconstruct the whole thermal deformation of the structures.
Additionally, as the moving parts of the heavy-duty CNC machine tool are rather heavier than the small and medium-sized CNC machine tools, when the machine tool works, the sedimentation deformation and vibration of the reinforced concrete foundation is more serious and intractable, which reduces the displacement measurement accuracy directly; 3 The processing environment of heavy-duty CNC machine tool is generally worse than the small and medium-sized CNC machine tools.
Traditional electric sensors can be easily influenced by the work environment. The long-term thermal error monitoring of the heavy-duty CNC machine tools requires better environmental adaptability and higher reliability to the related sensors.
In order to solve the thermal issues of heavy-duty CNC machine tools, we need to analyze the causes of thermal error of machine tool and then carry out in-depth study on the thermal deformation mechanism based on the existing theory and thermal deformation detection technology.
In addition, we need to conclude the existing monitoring technologies and provides new technical support for thermal error research on heavy-duty CNC machine tools. Currently, there are many review literatures on the thermal error of CNC machine tools [ 2 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ], but these papers mainly focus on the thermal issues in small and medium-sized CNC machine tools and seldom introduce thermal error monitoring technologies.
This paper focuses on the study of thermal error of the heavy-duty CNC machine tool and emphasizes on its thermal error monitoring technology.
This technology is an intelligent sensing and monitoring system for heavy-duty CNC machine tools and opens up new areas of research on the heavy-duty CNC machine tool thermal error. For the internal heat sources, the heat generated from the spindle and ball screws has a significant influence on the heavy-duty CNC machine tools and appears frequently in the literatures. The heating mechanism, thermal distribution, and thermal-induced deformation are often researched by theoretical and experimental methods.
For the external heat sources, the dynamic change regularity of the environmental temperature and its individual influence and combined effects with internal heat sources on thermal error of heavy-duty CNC machine tools are studied. It is the scalar product of the rolling bearing friction torque M f and angular velocity of the inner ring of the bearing.Hannon [ 34 ] detailed the existing thermal models for the rolling-element bearing.
Chapter 11 presents modern machine tools and operations for mechanical nontraditional machining processes, such as ultrasonic and jet machining. Includes the latest direct ironmaking and direct steelmaking processes and mini mills.
Examples of turning, drilling, milling, and grinding dynamometers are explained. However, for thermal deformation field monitoring of the large structural parts, the Heavy-duty CNC machine tools face greater challenges. The long-term thermal error monitoring of the heavy-duty CNC machine tools requires better environmental adaptability and higher reliability to the related sensors.
Supply Chain Management. Machine Tool Technology Diploma.
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