More Reading Power3 - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Student-Centered reading skills Teacher's Guide. More Reading Power - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Documents Similar To More Reading Power More Reading Power3 AK. Book Details Author: Linda Jeffries,Beatrice S. Mikulecky Pages: Publisher: Pearson Education ESL Brand: English ISBN: Publication Date: Release Date: Reading Comprehension covers skimming, scanning, recognizing topics and main ideas, understanding sentences.
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The new edition of Reading Power 3 is enhanced by research-based methods and activities for learning vocabulary. Longer reading passages and new. Reading Power is the latest edition of the popular reading skills textbook Reading Power. Its unique structure, featuring four parts to be used concurrently, allows. 9 تشرين الأول (أكتوبر) More Reading Power Part Two: Reading Comprehension Skills Unit 1: Scanning Unit 3: Vocabulary Knowledge for Effective Reading.
According to research, giving students responsibility for their learning in this way increases their involvement and motivation, making them more likely to actually learn the words.
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The tests in the Test Booklet for More Reading Power 3 can be used either for evaluating students acquisition of vocabulary or skills, or for additional practice or review. It is important for teachers to assess students vocabulary learning. Teachers should keep up the pressure in a friendly way by checking notebooks and study cards often, and by testing frequently. See page 24 in this Guide or Part 2, Unit 2, Test 3 in the Test Booklet for a testing format that can be photocopied or simply copied onto a piece of paper.
Students need to be encouraged to review vocabulary often and over a long period of time, so they will not forget words learned in past weeks or months. See Studying Vocabulary, page 21 of this Guide. To this end, teachers should periodically give students review tests. There are a number of useful online resources students can consult in addition to dictionaries. One of these is Check My Words at http: The information about words given in this dictionary is typical of most learner dictionaries.
At this level, students should ideally have two dictionaries: A monolingual-learner dictionary intended for intermediate students. Learner dictionaries are preferable to other monolingual English dictionaries because they provide more information about how words are used.
The definitions are also more accessible, since they are written with limited vocabulary and simple structures. A bilingual dictionary. These dictionaries provide accessible meanings for students, who may have difficulty understanding even the controlled language of learner dictionaries.
Because bilingual dictionaries are bi-directional English-to-first language and first language-to-English , they are also more helpful for productive use. One further advantage to the use of bilingual dictionaries is that it may be easier for students to remember definitions in their first language. Pronunciation plays an important role in reading in two ways. If students cannot pronounce a word or phrase, they are much less likely to remember it.
Many people have experienced this when reading a book written in another language, for example, a Russian novel. If you are not familiar with Russian, you may not be sure how to pronounce the names of characters and places and may have difficulty remembering them.
Furthermore, learning to pronounce words and listening to others try to pronounce them involves another part of the brain, another learning dimension, which reinforces the memory of those words. Research has also shown that knowledge of the way words sound in English helps students to decode them, that is, to process the letters and words on the page.
The speed at which words are decoded greatly influences comprehension and fluency. For these reasons, teachers need to pay attention to pronunciation, even in a reading class. They should always pronounce new words for the class and give students practice saying them aloud. Students also need to learn how to make use of the information about pronunciation that is available in dictionaries.
Modern learner dictionaries use the symbols of the international phonetic alphabet, as in these exercises, but some dictionaries use other symbols. If necessary, teachers can use those symbols to develop exercises similar to the ones in Unit 1. It is not necessary for students to memorize the pronunciation symbols, since they can always refer to the examples in their dictionaries, but they will need practice recognizing the symbols and interpreting them.
Studies suggest that the first letters of a word are the most important in word recognition, so teachers should instruct students to concentrate on the first letters.
Very often those first letters may be enoughalong with other information from the contextfor the reader to guess the rest of the word, and move ahead. Additional Activities. For more work on pronunciation, teachers can create additional exercises like the ones in this section.
Where possible, the words should be ones students have encountered or are likely to encounter, that is, frequently-used words from the list in Appendix 2.
Research in both L1 and L2 reading development suggests that instruction in phonics can also greatly help students with their reading. This can include teaching the most frequent and regular sound-spelling correspondences and practice sounding out wordssaying aloud each of the sounds in the word and noting the spelling for each sound. Students should be encouraged to do this whenever they encounter a new word. Lists of minimal pairs can be found online by typing minimal pairs into a search engine.
Spelling is another kind of word knowledge that is important for reading. If students have only heard a word, but are unsure how it is spelled, they may not recognize it in their reading. Furthermore, knowledge of how words are spelled helps speed up students decoding. Students need to understand the importance of spelling in reading or they may not bother to focus on it.
Teachers should, therefore, take the time to check students knowledge of spelling during class. This should continue throughout the course. They should also require correct spelling on assignments and tests. The more opportunities students have to think about sound-spelling correspondences, the more aware they will become of the regularities in English spelling.
It is important for students to realize that regularities do indeed exist especially with consonants and that these can help learners acquire spelling for new words. In order to follow the syntax of a sentence, students need to understand the role of each word in the sentence. That is not possible unless they know what part of speech it is.
Knowledge of the part of speech is therefore very important in constructing the meaning of a sentence. Knowing the part of speech is also important because of the way it can help limit the possibilities in predicting what will come next in the sentence. Research has shown that prediction is a key aspect of the reading process.
The more quickly and accurately students can make predictions and confirm them, the more fluently they will read. For example, if a particular word is an adjective, it is fairly likely that the next word will be a noun.
A prediction can be further narrowed down if students know anything about likely noun collocates for the adjective. Only one exercise has been included for determining part of speech, but others like it can easily be created. Being able to choose the most appropriate meaning from among several in the dictionary is an important skill that can be developed with training. These exercises aim to raise students awareness of the possible pitfalls of choosing one meaning from among several and give them practice in making choices.
As with parts of speech, teachers can easily create exercises that are similar to the one here, preferably with a learner dictionary, since they tend to include more examples. Last, but not least, students need to learn to make use of the collocational information and the example sentences in dictionary entries to get a fuller understanding of when a word is used and what other words are used with it.
This aspect of word knowledge is essential, of course, for appropriate use of new words in speaking or writing. It is also important in reading, as knowledge about context and collocation can help a reader narrow down the possibilities of what may come next in a sentence, and so improve fluency.
When teachers focus on new words in reading passages, they should also provide information about usageboth collocational and syntactical. Students should then be encouraged to add notes about usage to their vocabulary notebooks.
Awareness of syntax and collocation will be developed further in Part 2, Unit 6. Focusing on words that students have already encountered in lessons or readings, teachers can create additional exercises of this type from the example phrases and sentences on a dictionary page. This unit trains students in an approach to new vocabulary that they can use for all their readingin More Reading Power 3 as well as in other books though NOT in their extensive reading.
A key feature of this approach is that students select the vocabulary that will be useful for them to learn. They then develop a personalized study method using vocabulary notebooks and word study cards.
Teaching students how to select the words to learn helps them avoid wasting time on words or phrases they may not need, and also makes them responsible for their learning, which increases their involvement and motivation and leads to more learning. For the approach to succeed, students must understand the criteria behind choosing useful words.
In fact, most students are relieved to have some way to focus their vocabulary learning, a task that may sometimes seem monumental to them. In the steps presented here, students will become familiar with the Word List in Appendix 2, on page of the Student Book and also be asked to reflect on their own language needs.
Teachers will need to check students work closely and ask them to justify the choices they make. They should also monitor carefully and often students vocabulary notebooks and study cards to make sure students follow through after the initial class work. Further practice in the process of selecting vocabulary to learn is provided in the Focus on Vocabulary sections at the end of each unit in Part 3.
These sections also provide teachers with examples of exercise types for more vocabulary development. See the lextutor website, developed by Tom Cobb at the Universit du Qubec Montral, for help in creating various kinds of vocabulary exercises: See page 16 in this Guide for more about the word list.
In further vocabulary work, it is advisable for teachers to continue to consult the list as one measure of the usefulness of any given word. As mentioned in the Student Book, other criteria may also be important, including relevance for a particular reading or for the students courses, work, or personal interests. If teachers wish to give students additional practice choosing words to learn, the passages they use should not be too difficult.
Students will learn more from texts that contain some, but not too many, new words. If there are too many unknown words, they will have difficulty understanding the general ideas and will not be able to establish the context.
Note that in Exercise 5 students will be asked to look back at the vocabulary items they have written in the margins of Exercises 1 to 4 and to transfer them to their vocabulary notebooks, which will give them further opportunities to work with these words.
Teachers may need to remind students that their notebook and study card entries should include the part of speech and the sentence where they found the word or phrase. It is important for this to become a regular habit. Step 1 A in the exercises: Reading all the way through the passage before focusing on new words or phrases allows students to get a general sense of the ideas and to establish a context.
Step 2 B in the exercises: Research suggests that re-reading greatly enhances comprehension and so further builds context.
Students may already have noticed words or phrases that are new to them; with this second reading and underlining, those words and phrases get more focused attention. Steps 3 and 4 C and D in the exercises: Students may understand the process better if teachers model their thinking aloud with a few vocabulary items in Exercise 1 on page When students are working on Exercise 2, teachers can ask some of the more confident students to explain their choices to the class.
At this point, students might not recognize phrases that are useful collocations, so teachers might want to point some out in the text e. Even if students may be able to guess the meaning of a collocation, recognition will be speeded up by the fact that students have focused on it, written it down, and reviewed it. They are also more likely to acquire it for their productive vocabulary. Step 5 E in the exercises: Though students have had some guidance in Unit 1 on how to find phrases in the dictionary, this task may still present problems for some, and that may cause them to simply avoid looking up phrases.
Teachers may want to provide further practice and assistance for those who seem to need it. To become independent vocabulary learners, students must develop a systematic method for studying vocabulary. This section introduces the use of a vocabulary notebook for collecting words to be learned and the use of word study cards for review.
If students follow the recommended procedure for choosing vocabulary from their reading and then use vocabulary notebooks and study cards as suggested, they should encounter each item enough times to ensure learning, though that will need to be reinforced with subsequent reviewing and testing. Reviewing is an important aspect of vocabulary learning that students may overlook when studying new vocabulary on their own. Even the most eager learners often move ahead continuously to new vocabulary and do not realize the importance of going back over words and phrases that they learned in previous weeks or months.
Teachers should emphasize the need for regular reviewingafter each class, the next day, after a week, two weeks, or a month. The best way to encourage this kind of review is with frequent short quizzes of recently acquired vocabulary in students notebooks, and regular review More Reading Power 3 Teachers Guide. See About Individualized Testing of Vocabulary, page Students must understand that knowing a word does not simply mean memorizing a dictionary definition.
As they learned in Unit 1, there are many different kinds of word knowledge, and their vocabulary study should always include as much information as possible about a word or phrase, including pronunciation, spelling, part of speech, and different definitions. All vocabulary work should also include information about usage, both collocational and syntactical. For that reason, teachers should present vocabulary in the context of a reading or a listening text, and vocabulary entries in notebooks and on study cards should always include the sentences where they were found.
Additional Vocabulary Activities Vocabulary presentations Students can be asked to choose two or three words or phrases that they have selected from their recent reading and give brief presentations in front of the class or a small group of students.
In their presentations, they should write the necessary information for each word or phrase the part of speech, the sentence where they found it on the board, so that all the students can see it, and then dictate the definition slowly, so that students can write it down. They should also mention any relevant information about the usage.
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Student-generated vocabulary exercises or tests Asking students to create vocabulary exercises or tests for their classmates increases involvement and motivation, though teachers will need to make sure that the choice of vocabulary and the exercises are appropriate.
Among the kinds of exercises that students could produce are: Gapped sentencesIf students write the sentences, teachers will need to check them. Otherwise, students can use sentences from dictionaries or other sources. Gapped textsThese are best taken from a published source, not written by students.
See Exercise 4 on page in the Student Book. Matching words or phrases and definitions See Exercise 2 on page of the Student Book.
Teacher's Guide with Answer Key (More (3rd Edition))
Word family charts See Exercise 6 on page of the Student Book. Word Maps 1. The example below was created from the passage in Unit 2, Exercise 2 on page Or they can ask pairs of students to create maps.
The groups and their placement can be according to grammatical categories, as above, or according to other criteria. Students can be asked to explain how each of the words or phrases relate to the key word in the middle. Alternatively, students can be asked to find as many ways as possible to put together the words and phrases in sentences.
Word family maps Teachers can easily improvise charts like the ones in Exercise 6 on page of the Student Book or simple clusters with the different forms of words pulled from a reading text.
Though students will learn more about these in Unit 4: Word Parts, teachers do not need to wait until students have done that unit to start work on word formation. Vocabulary Notebooks page For each vocabulary entry, teachers should require students to write all the information listed in the example that is, word, part of speech, definition, and sentence in which they found the word.
Students may be tempted not to bother to write some of the information, especially the sentence where they found the word, as it may seem time-consuming. Teachers can point out that it is this very facttaking the time, making the effortthat increases the likelihood that students will remember the item. Students do not have to write words in their notebook in the exact same format as the example.
If they feel that another format works better, they can use that format. However, it is very useful to keep the word and meaning on separate but facing pages; this set-up enables students to cover one side and test themselves. As for the order in which they write the words and phrases, students can personalize their notebooks in whatever way works best for them.
Some students use small address or telephone books and write the words and phrases in alphabetical order. Others invent categories for the words and file them that way. Still others list the words and phrases according to where they found them. Study Cards page With their study cards, as with vocabulary learning in general, students should be encouraged to adapt them to their individual habits and learning styles.
Some students, for example, use sticky notes instead of cards. They stick the words they want to learn that day or week around their desk at home or on a mirror or wall that they often look at, and then they remove the notes one by one as they learn each word.
About Individualized Testing of Vocabulary Since each student will have different words in his or her notebook, teachers need to individualize vocabulary testing. This can be done with the photocopiable form on the next page or simply on lined paper.
There are two ways to set up the quizzes: Students can write ten new words or phrases from their vocabulary notebooks onto the form. Then they should close their notebooks and write the meanings. Teachers can collect the notebooks, make lists for each student, give the quiz in the next class, and then return the notebooks. Note that the second part of the vocabulary quiz form tests students on collocation. Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.
This unit introduces the concept of context, and gives students instruction and practice in inferring meaning from context, first in sentences, and then in passages.
In recent years, some linguists and teachers have argued that teaching this skill is a waste of time, citing studies showing that learners may not be able to identify meaning after reading a word in context. There are several reasons, though, to doubt the conclusions drawn from those studies.
First, the studies often involved the reading of a single passage or storynot extensive reading as it is usually defined. Thus, students usually had only one encounter with each target word. Second, the criteria for judging knowledge of vocabulary were very restricted: Subjects were asked to demonstrate their understanding of the meaning of target words by identifying synonyms or definitions.
But according to some linguists, this narrow concept of vocabulary. As Nation says, Vocabulary learning is not an all-or-nothing piece of learning for any particular word. It is a gradual process of one meeting with a word adding to or strengthening the small amounts of knowledge gained about the word from previous encounters.
Though a first encounter with a word the only encounter by the subjects in the studies may not give the reader enough information to formulate an exact meaning, it may provide some initial information about the worda sense of what kind of word it is and when it is used which later encounters will build on. In fact, while it may be true that context often cannot provide readers with precise meanings, it may help them begin the process of narrowing down the semantic possibilities for a word and of gathering information about usage and collocation.
Instruction on how to find context clues can help make students more aware of the kind of information that context can provide and how to extract it. With practice, students can become more efficient at this and more confident in their abilities.
This, in turn, can help them become more fluent readers. When reading extensively, for example, students may often be able to gather enough meaning or information from the context to enable them to continue reading with understanding. It should be noted here that extensive reading can play a key role in helping students become more confident about their ability to guess meaning.
At the same time, the multiple encounters with words that occur through extensive meaning also allow students to expand and build on their knowledge about words. As with each skill, teachers should explain the rationale behind learning how to infer meaning from context.
It is also important to warn students of the limits to what can be inferred and the need to expand on their understanding in future encounters and thus, the importance of extensive reading.
In all the exercises, students should try to write the general meaning of each word in English, however vague or circuitous, as this is excellent language and writing practice. If that is not possible for students, they may write equivalent words in their own language.
Students who are inexperienced at inferring meaning may make wrong guesses at first, but they should be reassured that this is to be expected. It may help to advise them to read ahead of the unknown word to see if their guess fits in the larger context. Students may come up with answers to these exercises that are somewhat different from those in the Answer Key. Teachers should accept different answers as long as they make sense and students can justify them.
Teachers should go through these steps with students before students do Practice 1. Then they should do the first item in the practice exercise together with the class, modeling aloud their own thinking as they look for contextual clues to arrive at the general meaning. Note that the target words in these exercises are not frequent vocabulary items and are not included on the Word List in Appendix 2. They should NOT be the focus of instruction or study unless the student has a particular need for or interest in a word.
More frequent words were not used here as students might already be familiar with them and thus would not be able to practice guessing meaning. The choice of less frequent words also reflects the fact that students will be more likely to use this skill with less frequent words. In some of these exercises, students will need to make use not only of contextual clues, but also of their knowledge of the world in order to infer the meaning of the target words. For example, in Exercise 5, in order to understand the meaning of cracks a book, students need to take into consideration what they know about teenagers and the attitude of many teenagers towards books and learning.
In the last set of exercisesPractice 2 and Exercises 7 and 8the use of xxxxxx instead of the real word means that students cannot use information from the word to help them make a guess about the meaning. Though this may not reflect what actually happens when students read, it forces them to focus on the context, rather than simply make wild guesses from the spelling or the look of the word.
This unit gives students practice in word segmentation. At the intermediate level, it is important for students to become aware of the way many words can be broken down into parts in English.
Research has shown that recognizing and understanding word parts is a key step in developing decoding skills.
The process of decoding is different from language to language. Students ability to decode in English may be hindered by what they have learned in their native language, especially if that language is non-alphabetic or non-syllabic. These students in particular will benefit from focused learning about the syllabic structure of English words and the way they can acquire knowledge of prefixes and suffixes.
By learning how to analyze a word for its parts and becoming familiar with some common prefixes and suffixes, students will also acquire a useful strategy that will help them expand their vocabulary. Furthermore, recognizing suffixes and how they relate to syntax in English sentences is crucial for understanding sentence structure and following meaning.
Finally, awareness of word formation patterns will allow students to develop new ways of processing words in English. After finishing this unit, teachers should continue to work on word segmentation. When giving vocabulary tests, teachers can check students retention of information about different forms of words they have studied by asking them to fill in a chart like the ones in Exercises 9 and These exercises are not intended to be used for pronunciation practice, and students should not be asked to produce the sounds of the words, especially since some of them are less frequent.
However, hearing the words as they read them reinforces students decoding skills, so teachers can read the words aloud as students look at them. The information about Latin and Greek roots is intended to help students become more aware of relationships among words as well as among languages. However, it is not necessary for students to learn these roots.
Learner dictionaries include this information.
Reading Power 3 - Teacher's Guide with Answer Key
Many of the words in these exercises are frequently used and are found on the Word List in Appendix 2. However, to give a range of examples of words containing the various word parts, it was sometimes necessary to include some words that are less frequent. Partly for that reason, but above all, because the words in this unit are presented without any context, students should not be asked to try to learn the words presented in these exercises unless they already are familiar with other words in the same family.
The forms that are given in these exercises and in the Answer Key are those found in the Longman Dictionary of American English, and are the ones most commonly used. Other dictionaries may include other forms, which may be acceptable as answers if students can give proof of their existence. However, students should not be asked to learn infrequent forms.
This unit focuses on the way words in English tend to be used together in frequent combinations. This aspect of word knowledge has long been recognized as an important factor in fluency of language production.
What is perhaps less known is the role collocation plays in reading fluency. In fact, if readers are familiar with common collocations, they can process text more quickly because they can predict more often what will come next in the text.
This means they can make fewer and more rapid fixations when the eye focuses on a point in a text and sends visual input to the brain and also fewer regressions backward glances.
The fewer fixations and regressions the reader makes, the faster and more fluent the reading. Whenever a collocation comes up in class, teachers should point it out, explain its meaning and the context where it is used, and talk with students about how they would express the same thing in their native language s.
Rain is water, and water becomes heavy if theres a lot of it, so heavy rain must mean a lot of rain. A log is a heavy object that cannot move, so this must be a very heavy, deep sleep. Students should be required to study collocations the same way that they study single vocabulary items, including them in their vocabulary notebook and on word study cards with the context where they were found.
When testing vocabulary, teachers should also test collocational knowledge. The first aim of this unit is to raise students awareness of how words combine in English and how that might be different from the way they combine in other languages. The unit also aims to help students realize the extent to which collocations are used by speakers and writers in More Reading Power 3 Teachers Guide.
In fact, particularly as they deal with more sophisticated language, students will find that few sentences do not contain formulaic language of one kind or another. One kind of collocation that is not included in the list on page 82 are conversational expressions, such as See you later, What about you?
Teachers can point these out in the context of a dialogue in a story or during a listening exercise. To expand their knowledge of collocations, students need to begin making a conscious effort to include them in their vocabulary studying. The work in this unit can be a starting point in that direction, but only a starting point, since it is not possible in these pages to present more than a very small percentage of the thousands of frequent and useful collocations in English.
Because of the vastness of the task, however, it is unlikely that students will be able to acquire a very extensive knowledge of collocation through instruction and independent study.
The only way they can significantly enhance their collocational knowledge is through massive language inputlarge amounts of language in real contextsin other words, through extensive reading and listening. With collocations, as with single words, students will need to make a selection of those they want to learn, starting with the most common ones.
Since there is no convenient list of frequent collocations to consult, they will need to check with their teachers at first and also learn how to find collocations in their dictionaries to find out if one is worth learning.
For this, students are better off with a monolingual-learner dictionary, which usually includes more collocational information. Teachers can point out other kinds of collocations as they come up.
The collocations included in this section represent only a small percentage of those commonly used in academic writing and other formal writing, but will give students an idea of the ways that writers often combine words in these texts. In Exercises 5 to 7, teachers can point out some of the additional collocations that are not listed on page 90 or in the boxes for Exercises 5 and 6.
Alternatively, they can ask students to try to look for more collocations. Exercise 5, 1. Additional Activities Students can be asked to look for collocations academic or otherwise in other passages in More Reading Power 3 or in other sources.
They should then try to use their dictionaries to find out if the combinations they have chosen are indeed frequent and worth learning, but teachers will need to check their work and make sure students have made good choices. Teachers should point out that the academic collocations listed in the examples and Exercises 5 and 6 can be useful for writing assignments.
In this unit, students develop their awareness of sentence structure and reference in English so that they will be able to follow meaning in sentences.
Being able to grasp meaning quickly at the sentence level is a necessary skill for developing reading fluency. Even at the intermediate level, teachers should not assume that students can do this easily. Their ability to parse sentences and understand relationships within a sentence depends a great deal on their language and instructional background.
For some students, these exercises can serve as a quick review, but others may need additional practice. Students will already have read the passages in Exercises 3 and 5 in earlier units. This will allow them to concentrate better on the syntactical features that are the focus of the exercises. Teachers can give students further practice with sentence structure and reference by asking them to analyze passages in other parts of the book the same way they analyze the passages in these exercises.
The comprehension of any sentence depends on the readers ability to identify its key structures, especially the subject and the verb. This ability may seem quite basic, but it should not be taken for granted, especially in students coming from languages with very different sentence structure.
Additional Activity Nation suggests a useful way to work on sentence structure and meaning with an exercise that he calls What does what? Teachers provide students with a paragraph of several sentences and then ask students these questions: What or who does what or What is what?
Sentences from Part 2, Unit 2, Exercises 1 and 3. Which finger do you use to press a doorbell? People who are over 30 will almost certainly do it with their index finger. More recently, the telegraph and then the telephone were also viewed as tools of linguistic destruction.
Work on signal words and phrases here overlaps to some extent with work on signals for patterns of organization in Part 3, Unit 4. This is intentional, since these words and phrases play a key role in helping readers follow writers ideas in writing in English, especially in academic writing. They often serve as markers to let readers know about logical shifts in the sentences or texts.
Readers who do not notice signals or understand their functions may not be able to follow the ideas. Teachers can ask students to identify signal words in other passages in the book though only after students have read them for their original purpose or in passages from other sources.
Work on identifying signal words and phrases in reading can tie in with practice in using these words and phrases in writing. Additional Activity Awareness of the role of signal words can be enhanced by looking at writing where they are used less, such as in news articles.
The article in Part 3, Unit 1, Exercise 8, page can serve as an example. Teachers can ask students to speculate on why this might be the case. All of the following are relevant: News articles are written in a hurry. They usually relate events, which are easier to follow than ideas, so signals are not necessary.
Readers often skim and skip large parts of articles, so journalists do not bother to make their writing coherent. That is the conventional way of writing news articles. Students ability to understand and use the various kinds of pronouns presented here will depend to a great extent on their native language.
The aim in the exercises in this section is not to teach grammar, but to raise students awareness of how referents are used in English sentences, so that they can more quickly identify them and arrive at meaning. Teachers can give students more practice by asking them to analyze passages from other parts of the book that they have already read. The ability to recognize synonyms and related words is yet another skill that will help students follow meaning in English, since writers in English frequently make use of them to avoid repetition.
Related words can include hyponyms, super-ordinates, antonyms, and words or phrases that are not normally considered synonymous or even related to a particular word, but can be interpreted as such in a particular context. Additional Introductory Activity Before doing Exercise 7, teachers can ask students to look again at paragraph 4 of the passage in Exercise 6 about the Tuaregs and find five phrases that refer in some way to the same aspect of the Tuaregs lifestyle.
The phrases are: In Part 2, students worked mainly on text from the bottom upat the level of words and sentences. In Part 3, they learn about and practice mainly but not only top down skills, those that are traditionally thought of as reading comprehension skills.
As in Part 2, it is essential for students to understand the skill or strategy that is targeted in each unit and how it relates to general reading ability. Vocabulary Notebooks page 48 Teachers should require students to write all the information listed in the example for each vocabulary entry.
Students may be tempted not to write some of the information, especially the sentence where they found the word, as it may seem time-consuming. Teachers can point out that it is this very fact—taking the time, making the effort—that increases the likelihood of students remembering and being able to use new words. Students do not have to write words in their notebooks exactly the same way they are shown in the example.
If a student feels that another system works better for him or her, he or she should by all means use that system. However, it is very useful to keep the words and meanings on separate but facing pages, in separate columns , so students can cover one side and test themselves. As for the order in which they write the words and phrases, students should be encouraged to personalize their notebooks in whatever way works best for them.
Others use regular-sized notebooks and choose categories for iling the words, such as by topic or part of speech. Still others list the words and phrases according to where they were encountered. Teachers who feel that students could beneit from additional supervised work with the procedure for selecting vocabulary in a text and writing it in their notebooks can have students work with other passages that they have already read, either in Advanced Reading Power 4 or from other sources.
Word Study Cards page 49 With their study cards, as with vocabulary learning in general, students should be encouraged to adapt the system to their individual habits and learning styles. Some students, for example, prefer to use sticky notes instead of note cards. Each day or week, they stick the words they want to learn on the wall around their desk at home, on the refrigerator door, or in another place where they will see them often.
Then they remove the sticky notes one by one as they learn the words. Individualized Testing of Vocabulary Since students are guided to choose their own vocabulary to learn, they will have different words in their notebooks, and teachers will need to individualize vocabulary testing.
There are several ways to set up the quizzes: Students can write ten new words or phrases from their vocabulary notebooks onto the form. Then they should close their notebooks and write the meanings.
Teachers can collect the notebooks, make a list for each student, give the quiz in the next class, and then return the notebooks. Teachers can elicit suggestions from students for words in their notebooks that they think would be useful for the whole class to learn. These can be written on the board with their meanings and the sentences where they were found, so the other students can add them to their notebooks.
Teachers can then test the students on these words after about a week. Any of the above testing procedures can be modiied by asking students to write a sentence including the target word or phrase, rather than simply giving the meaning. Note that the second part of the vocabulary quiz form tests students on collocations. In their presentations, they should write down the necessary information for each word or phrase e. They should also mention any relevant information about the usage.
Among the kinds of exercises that students could produce are the following examples: Otherwise, students can use sentences from dictionaries or other sources. Students can use the Lextutor website to create the cloze. The example below was created from the passage in Unit 1, Exercise 1, on page 40 in the Student Book.
Another option is to ask pairs of students to create maps on paper. The groups and their placement can be according to grammatical categories or other criteria. Students can be asked to explain how each of the words or phrases relates to the key word in the middle. Alternatively, students can be asked to ind as many ways as possible to put together the words and phrases in sentences.
Teachers can easily improvise charts like the ones in Part 2, Unit 3, Exercises 9—12 pages 78—81 in the Student Book or simple clusters with the different forms of words pulled from a reading text. UNIT2 Inferring Meaning from Context page 54 This unit introduces the concept of context and gives students instruction and practice in inferring meaning from context, irst in sentences and then in passages. Indeed, it is not always possible to guess meaning, especially not a precise deinition, from one encounter with a word in context, but it is often possible to get at least part of the meaning or a sense of what kind of word it is—enough to continue reading without having to stop and look it up.
This is one very important reason to encourage students to try to guess meaning. Another is that even a tentative guess can provide learners with a starting point in understanding and learning a word. Each later encounter with the word will help the learner narrow down the semantic possibilities and gather information about usage and collocation.
Instruction and practice in guessing meaning will help students make a habit of noticing and using context and allow them to develop a deeper understanding of the possible nuances in meaning and variations in usage. As with any skill, teachers should explain the rationale behind learning how to infer meaning from context. It is also important to warn students of the limits to what can be inferred and the need to expand on their understanding in future encounters and thus, the importance of extensive reading.
It may help to advise students to read ahead of the unknown word to see if a guess its in the larger context. Teachers should accept different answers as long as they make sense and students can justify them. The more they read, the more conidence they will develop in their ability to guess; as they gain conidence, they will also become more luent readers.
Inferring Meaning from the Sentence page 54 Teachers should go through these steps before students complete the Practice exercise on page Then they should do the irst item in the Practice exercise with the whole class, modeling out loud their own thinking process as they look for contextual clues to arrive at the general meaning. They should not be the focus of instruction or study unless the student has a particular need for or interest in a word. More frequent words were not used here as students might already be familiar with them, and thus would not be able to practice guessing meaning.
The choice of less frequent words also relects the fact that students will be more likely to use this skill with less frequent and therefore less-useful words, since guessing allows them to move ahead without wasting the time and energy required to stop and look them up.
Inferring Meaning from a Passage page 62 As in the sentences, students will need to make use not only of contextual clues but also of their knowledge of the world in order to infer the meaning of the target words. The more complex the content, the more knowledge about the context can help infer meaning. For example, in Exercise 6 on page 62, in order to infer something about the word dehydrated they may need to know about the different ways that food can be preserved.
Students may not be able to infer meaning for all the words in the exercises. If they are having dificulty, teachers can ask them to work in pairs to try and help each other come up with inferences. Remember Box page 65 These boxes appear at the end of Units 2—4 in Part 2 to remind students to make use of their vocabulary notebooks and study cards for gathering and reviewing the new vocabulary terms in the unit. Teachers should make sure that students follow through.
Students whose irst language is non-alphabetic or non-syllabic may be hindered in their decoding of English by the decoding habits they have learned in their native language. These students in particular will beneit from focused learning about the syllabic structure of English words and the way they can acquire preixes and sufixes. Learning how to analyze a word for its parts and becoming familiar with some common preixes and sufixes are useful strategies that will help students expand their vocabulary.
Furthermore, recognizing sufixes and how they relate to syntax in English sentences is crucial for understanding sentence structure and following meaning. Finally, awareness of word families and formation patterns will allow students to develop new ways of processing words in English. The word parts included here are among the most common, but there are of course many others that could not be included.
Along with an awareness of the importance of word parts in English, students need to develop the habit of analyzing words for their parts and noticing relationships among words.
It is not necessary for students to learn these roots. Learner dictionaries include this information. However, the aim of the exercises is to provide a range of examples of words containing the various word parts, including some less-frequent words. However, students should not be asked to produce the sounds of the words unless they have already heard them. Noticing and relecting on the semantic relationship between the preix or root and the whole word will help students remember that particular word and will enhance their ability to make inferences about new words that include the preix or root.
Other dictionaries may include other forms, which are acceptable as answers if students can give proof of their existence. However, students should not be expected to learn them. This aspect of word knowledge has long been recognized as an important factor in luency of language production. What is perhaps less known is the role it plays in reading luency. In fact, if readers are familiar with common phrases, they can process text more quickly because they can make better predictions about what will come next in the text.
This allows them to make fewer ixations—when the eye focuses on a point in a text and sends visual input to the brain—and the ixations will be more rapid. With better predictions, readers also need to make fewer regressions backward glances.
The fewer the ixations and regressions, the faster and more luent the reading. However, the number of phrases in a new language is vast and daunting for a learner. Given the enormity of the task, teachers may well wonder how to help students acquire this aspect of language knowledge. As with the teaching of vocabulary in general, the teaching of phrases requires a multifaceted approach as outlined below.
In recent years, several lists have been compiled of phrases that are common in general and academic English. These can be useful for teachers to refer to in deciding what to focus on in classroom vocabulary work, but they may be less useful for students, since they are without any context. Nation and other linguists afirm that the best way to gain phrasal and collocational knowledge of the written language is by massive input of written language—in other words, by reading a lot.
Students need to learn to consider these aspects whenever they encounter an unfamiliar word. Concordance sentences are an excellent resource for work of this type. See Exercises 3—6 on pages 90—93 in the Student Book. Teachers and students can also do work on phrases in almost any text. See Exercises 7—13 on pages 94— This will help them remember the meaning and usage. Students can further reinforce memory by making up sentences involving familiar people or situations.
My sister can never make up her mind what to order in a restaurant. A pay raise is highly unlikely. When it rains a lot, and things get very wet, they become very heavy. A log is a heavy, unmoving object, so this must be a very heavy, unmoving sleep. Teachers can easily create more exercises like these for students who seem to be having dificulty inding phrases in the dictionary. Using Concordances page 89 The aim of these exercises is to teach students to notice and analyze collocational aspects of language using concordance sentences.
They may initially be intimidated by the format of the concordance sentences. For this reason, it is important for teachers to go slowly through the irst exercises and give students plenty of support, until they have understood how to work with the concordances to gather the information.
Teachers who are interested and think their students could beneit from work with concordances can introduce more work of this type using any of the concordancing programs available online, including those on the Lextutor website lextutor. Both this last website and the Lextutor website allow teachers to paste in any text for a detailed analysis of the frequency of the vocabulary it contains, both general and academic. Just as it is important to explain the rationale for vocabulary learning skills in Part 2, it is also essential for students to understand the purpose for learning the comprehension skill or strategy presented in each unit of Part 3 and how it will beneit them.
If students are aware of the rationale for what they are learning, they are more likely to be invested in their work and less likely to view the exercises as just busy work. Focus on Vocabulary Sections At the end of each unit in Part 3 is a Focus on Vocabulary FOV section with exercises that target vocabulary items presented in readings in that unit. All targeted single-word items are drawn from the Word List in the Appendix. In fact, if students have been following the vocabulary instructions included in each exercise of the unit, they should now be familiar with the target words in these exercises.
Where they were not already familiar with a word, they should have looked it up and written down the deinition, the sentences where they found it, the part of speech, and information about collocation or usage. If students have trouble with the words and phrases targeted in the FOV exercises, this may indicate that they are not following through with vocabulary study, and teachers may want to spend more time with them on the process for selecting and studying useful words and phrases introduced in Part 2, Unit 1.
The exercises also provide students with an opportunity for vocabulary review. Research has demonstrated the importance of regular review of vocabulary, starting soon after the initial encounter.
For this reason, teachers should have students do the FOV exercises within a week of inishing the unit. For further review at a later date, teachers can use the appropriate tests in the Advanced Reading Power 4 Test Booklet. The FOV exercises can also serve as models for teachers to create additional materials for vocabulary development—for example, vocabulary cloze exercises.
Reflecting on the Issues Boxes The passages included in each of the units in this part of the book revolve around an issue that is related in one way or another to the topics of fast food or food production. In many cases, of course, practicing the skill involves thinking about the content, but it is best to hold off on general discussions about issues relating to the content until after the skill-focused exercise has been completed.
Some exercises, especially in Units 1 and 2, include some follow-up discussion in the inal steps. In the later units, the discussion questions in the Relecting on the Issues boxes provide teachers and students with an opportunity to shift their focus from the reading comprehension skill to the issues raised in the text.
This allows students to make use of vocabulary they have encountered and to express and clarify their own views. This requires them to talk about their work and so enhances metacognitive awareness. It also gives them opportunities for language practice. As always in a language classroom, teachers need to ensure that all students participate in and beneit from the activity.
Adding the element of competition can increase student engagement and motivate them to work faster and take risks, but competition should never be taken too seriously, as it might intimidate less-conident students. For this reason, teachers should accept any reasonable answers as long as students can justify them. This can help them externalize their thinking processes, an important skill in academic settings, and develop their productive language skills.
Teachers can then complement those exercises and ill the reading lesson time with other kinds of activities from different parts of the book. Skimming involves the processing of a whole text for ideas, which requires complex thinking skills, and for that reason it is not introduced until Part 3, Unit 7. Scanning, on the other hand, is a somewhat simpler skill though equally important that mainly involves a visual search for a speciic item on a page. Aside from the fact that scanning is a useful skill in itself and one that we frequently use in daily life, the main reason for asking students to practice scanning is to help them break habits of reading English texts word by word and line by line.
To complete the exercises and answer the scanning questions, students are forced to move their eyes very quickly around the page, which helps them grow accustomed to skipping around the text, as is often necessary when reading. Scanning exercises also give students practice with word recognition and visual processing.
When scanning a text for a certain piece of information, students have an image in mind of what they are looking for. It may be a certain kind of information e. As they scan, students try to match that image with something on the page. This matching of expectations about a text with the visual information is a fundamental aspect of the reading process.
If the atmosphere in the class is suficiently relaxed and positive, the teacher can use competition to motivate students. The exercises can be turned into a race, with either individuals or pairs competing. The exercise instructions include suggested time limits, as indicated by a timer icon. The Scanning for Information exercises Student Book, pages — give students an opportunity to write further questions, which can provide useful writing practice.
The texts can be authentic, since students do not need to read or know all the words. Scanning texts can also provide opportunities for discussion about cultural differences, personal experiences, and so on. Though some of the material in these exercises may contain dificult vocabulary, students will ind that they do not need to know all the words in order to answer the questions.
Scanning for Key Words or Phrases page The concept of key words and phrases introduced here ties in with work that students will do in Unit 3 on inding the topic of paragraphs, since the key words and phrases are those related to the topic. Writers often repeat words related to the topic many times in order to help the reader follow the ideas. Key words are often though not always included in the title.
Practice with scanning for key words and phrases can help students become more aware of how writers make use of this important cohesive strategy. It can also be useful for students when they are learning how to skim for the gist of a passage in Unit 7, since those words may help point the reader to the important ideas. Previewing page Previewing is an essential skill that good readers make use of automatically.
When introducing previewing, teachers can mention that we often preview texts in daily life. For example, we preview the newspaper by reading the headlines—to decide which articles to read. We preview a letter by looking at the envelope—to decide whether to open it or throw it away if it is junk mail. We preview a book by reading the front and back—to decide if it is interesting and whether to read it as in Part 1, Unit 3. The beneits of previewing as a regular habit cannot be understated.
A minute or two invested in a preview puts the reader a giant step ahead in the process of comprehending a text. Practice with previewing also serves another purpose for students: In this sense, previewing is related to work on reading rate in Parts 1 and 4, and on skimming in Part 3, Unit 7. In fact, previewing is a form of skimming, but readers generally skim for the gist or main ideas, whereas in previewing, the aim is to get a sense of the type of text and how to approach it.
They may be able to guess more than they expect. Using their inferences and information from the text, they then make predictions about what will come next, which speeds up the reading process and leads to better comprehension. Instruction and practice help students gain awareness of the role these skills play in the reading process and conidence in their ability to use them. Making Inferences in Fiction page The exercises in this section aim to help students become aware of what it means to make inferences and to use all the information at their disposal—from the text and from their own experiences and background knowledge—to make guesses about information or meaning that is not explicitly stated.
These excerpts from iction have been included to allow students to exercise their imaginations in ways they may already do in their lives, such as when watching television or a movie. Teachers can read aloud the excerpts as students follow in the book.
However, students should not be asked to read aloud themselves until after the exercise has been completed and they have already listened to the teacher read. If teachers wish to have students do so, it should not be done in front of the class but in pairs with students taking turns. Inferring Information and Ideas in Nonfiction page Teachers who feel uncertain about the importance of making inferences when reading noniction need only look, for example, at the short text in Exercise 4 page to see how much cultural and other knowledge the writer may take for granted and how much the reader must infer, even in a relatively straightforward informational text such as a science news article.
In this way, they also can practice asking and answering clariication questions. Any answer that a student can support with evidence may be considered acceptable. Making Predictions page Using the information in a text along with inferences made from it, readers can make predictions about what will come next. This allows them to process the text more eficiently and improve their comprehension.
In each item, students are asked to choose the most logical completion for the last sentence of a paragraph. In order to do this correctly, they need to make use of various skills and strategies, including: Teachers will come to a better understanding of the thinking processes involved if they complete several exercises themselves before introducing this unit to the students. Then they should take the time to go through the example carefully with the whole class.
Teachers who wish to provide students with more exercises of this type will ind some in the Test Booklet. Once all students have completed an exercise, teachers can ask volunteers to read the items aloud and discuss the answers with the whole class. After students have completed an exercise, they can go back and look up words they felt were important for comprehension. Pairs of students are then asked to guess or predict the content of the chapter from each heading or title and then put them in a logical order.
Each pair should be asked to explain and justify the ordering. Afterwards, students can be given the table of contents of the actual reader or book and comment on how it compares to their own.
Looking at a randomized list of sentences, students try to imagine the plot and put the sentences into a logical order. Then they read the whole story or passage and compare it with their guesses. Students should then try to predict as much as possible about the text, including the topic and the type of text.
Structure and Reference page Since discourse in English is usually topic-centered, being able to identify the topic is crucial to understanding texts in English. Working with topics is therefore essential in a reading class. Topics and Supporting Information in Paragraphs page In languages other than English, paragraphs may not exist or may have a different function in text.
In English, paragraph structure is important because it is closely related to how the ideas are organized in the text. In order to follow those ideas, students need to have a clear understanding of what an English paragraph is, how it is structured, and how it functions in a larger passage. For example, English speakers tend to prefer directness in both speaking and writing, which means they usually make their point state their topic and main idea at the beginning of their communication and then they proceed to describe, explain, justify, etc.
In other cultures, however, people present ideas in very different ways. They may, for example, give the description, explanation, or justiication irst and then make the main point at the end.
They may never state the main point directly but assume that the reader will infer it from the information in the text. Another characteristic of English is the fact that most writing follows a structure.
Students will learn more about structure in Units 4 and 5. For example, in a typical paragraph in English, we would expect to learn the topic at or near the beginning, whereas in other languages, the topic may not be clear until later in the text. There are of course exceptions to the general rules about structuring paragraphs and longer passages in English, particularly in less formal writing, such as emails or blogs on the Internet.
Students may also come across examples of writing that is not clearly structured, which teachers can point it out for what it is: It is essential for students to complete work in this unit on topics, supporting ideas, and main ideas before they work on other aspects of textual organization and processing presented later in Part 3 patterns of organization, genres of writing, reading for study, or skimming.
For this reason, teachers should approach Units 3—8 in the given order. Talking together about the topic will also give them practice asking the kinds of questions that lead to comprehension. They should focus on the ideas in the passage and skip over new words or try to guess the general meaning. After they reread the passage, they can look up words or phrases that are necessary for comprehension. What matters is that they accurately relect the important ideas of the paragraph or passage.
It is worthwhile for teachers to insist on this, as it is an important skill that will serve students well in note-taking and writing. Teachers can remind students about the scanning for key words and phrases they did in Unit 2 and how this skill can now be applied. It includes the topic and, in some paragraphs, it may be quite similar to the topic sentence where the topic is introduced.
For example, in item 3 of Exercise 4 on page , the main idea emerges across several sentences in the middle of the paragraph: Company speciications cover everything from the size of the pickle slices to the circumference of the paper cups. When it comes to wage rates, however, the company is remarkably silent and laissez-faire.
In other mass production industries ruled by the assembly line, labor unions have gained workers higher wages, formal grievance procedures, and a voice in how the work is performed. The high turnover rates at fast food restaurants, the part-time nature of the jobs, and the marginal social status of the crew members have made it dificult to organize their workers.
Thus, it is important from the beginning for students to write the main idea as a complete sentence, not as a phrase. This requires them to select and reformulate ideas; in other words it requires students to synthesize and summarize. Though it may not be easy for language learners to come up with the appropriate words and structures in English, it can help them develop an active view of text as something that can be manipulated and reassembled in a more condensed form without changing the ideas.
This ability to synthesize ideas is an essential skill in an academic context, and one students will use in later units of the Student Book. Because of the fact that they tend to have many short paragraphs, they may seem quite different in structure from other kinds of writing.
It should be noted, however, that news reporters and editors are often working under the pressure of time and may sometimes write or publish articles that are not well structured nor coherent.
It may help students to keep in mind the question: Teachers should make sure that the important facts and ideas are included but can allow for differences in how they are expressed. Grammatical questions that arise can be taken up again at another time. Teachers can give students more practice by asking them to analyze passages from other parts of the book they have already read. The amount of practice needed may depend to some extent on language background.
Those coming from languages where pronouns function in ways that are similar to English will naturally have less dificulty recognizing pronoun referents. Synonyms and Related Words as Connectors page The ability to recognize synonyms and related words is yet another skill that will help students follow meaning in English, since writers in English frequently make use of them to avoid repetition.
Related words can include hyponyms, antonyms, and words or phrases that are not normally considered synonymous or related to a particular word but can be interpreted as such in a particular context. These topics can be written on the board or the teacher can select some to write on the board. Then each student or group of students can select a topic, write a main idea, and then write a paragraph. UNIT4 Identifying Patterns page Patterns in Reading The human brain can make sense of information more easily and remember it better if it is organized in a way that is clearly recognizable.
In fact, the brain does not work well with random pieces of information that must be stored as many separate items. It works more eficiently with information presented in an order—or pattern—that relates to schema already present in the brain. This allows the brain to connect new information with other information already stored in our memory so we can retrieve it later. When reading, we can take advantage of this innate human preference for patterns. Good readers know that writers use patterns to organize their thoughts and express them, so they look for those patterns as they read.
Since patterns in writing relect ways of thinking, it is not surprising that writers in different languages tend to use different patterns. Thus, students who are learning to read in a new language need to learn how patterns are used in that language. Research has shown that familiarity with the common patterns in English can greatly improve the ability of students to follow ideas in English text. As students move towards longer and more complex texts, it is important for them to get into the habit of thinking about the pattern and how it relates to the ideas.
In this unit, students will learn about six common patterns—listing, sequence, comparison- contrast, cause-effect, problem-solution, and deinition—and the words and phrases that writers often use with each pattern to signal the main idea and the supporting facts and ideas. Lists of patterns sometimes include two more—description-classiication and argument.
They have not been included here for reasons of space and because description-classiication is similar in many ways to the deinition pattern, and texts based on the argument pattern usually have many elements of the cause-effect pattern.
However, teachers who wish to introduce these patterns can ind examples and ask students to work on them in the same way they do with the texts in these exercises. In this unit, students shift from making diagrams, as they did in Unit 3, to making outlines in order to give them practice in two different methods of presenting ideas.
As shown in the outlines for the example paragraphs for each pattern, the form of the outlines can vary in order to show the relationships among the ideas, as suggested by Grabe in his discussion of graphic organizers.
The main or overall idea should still be clearly at the top, but the format for the supporting facts and ideas can be varied to relect the way they relate to one another. Show students the pictures below. They can be put on the board and covered until the class is ready for the activity, shown on a slide, or copied onto a separate page.
Give students 60 seconds to study the pictures. Remove the pictures from view and have students try to draw them from memory. If students have photocopies, they may be able to see the pictures on the reverse side, so they will need to cover them. Ask students: Communicating as they do the exercises will lead them to become more aware of their mental processes and help them more clearly articulate their thinking.
The supporting facts and ideas should be expressed in abbreviated form with words or phrases as is conventional in note-taking. For example, these sentences from the example paragraph on page include comparison signal words both, whereas as well as some listing signal words also, Furthermore. They also both aim to produce quality foods that will meet consumer demand.
Furthermore, whereas conventional farming tends to degrade soil quality. Not all passages are clearly organized, and identifying patterns in longer passages may not be straightforward. The class can then choose which one they think most effectively represents the relationships among the ideas in each pattern. At this point, students should have a good understanding of how to identify and mark the important facts and ideas in a text.
Now they are ready to learn ways to make their marking more accurate and lexible and to try out other strategies to help them process and retain information and ideas from their reading. As they work through this unit, students should realize that the preferred study-reading method for many of them—simple underlining or highlighting—is quite supericial and not likely to lead to positive results. It is worth their taking the time while they are reading to make their marking more meaningful and to re-create the information and ideas in the text in a form that will make their review of the material easier and more effective.
Successful students generally use a variety of study strategies, depending on their needs for the course and the reading materials. The strategies can be grouped into three categories or phases see page in the Student Book. An effective study method would include a strategy from each phase: Marking text underlining, highlighting, etc.
Making diagrams or outlines or taking notes 3. The more they invest themselves personally in the process and add creative touches making sketches or using colored pens, for example , the more likely they are to retain the ideas and information.
Since the way each person does marking, diagramming, outlining, notes, summaries, or quiz questions relects the way he or she is thinking about the text, there will naturally be differences. Teachers can show them a secondhand textbook full of markings to help convince them that it is acceptable.
If students are using library or classroom copies of textbooks, they should of course be reminded that they should not underline or highlight any text. This is also true of books that they intend to resell after their courses.
In both cases, they will need to be especially thorough in their note-taking. Making Diagrams and Outlines page As stated in the Student Book, diagramming in particular and outlining to a lesser extent are preferable to simply taking notes because they allow students to visually represent the relationships among ideas. Taking Notes page The note-taking format used here sometimes referred to as the Cornell method can also be used for taking notes from lectures.
It is important for students, however, to organize notes in some clear structure, as explained in the Student Book page , or the notes will not be useful for study later. Writing Summaries page Work on summaries should not be done before students have a irm grasp of the structures used in written English and can identify the important facts and ideas. In an academic context, summarizing is a vital strategy that can serve a number of purposes: Linda Jeffries ,Beatrice S.
Mikulecky Pages: English ISBN: Publication Date: Description The new edition of Reading Power 3 is enhanced by research-based methods and activities for learning vocabulary.
Longer reading passages and new study-reading activities, including outlining and text marking, prepare students to enter the world of academic reading.
Reading Power's unique process methodology teaches students to view reading as a process. The series encourages students to develope a strategiec approach to reading and to view reading in English as a problem-solving activity rather than a translation exercies. Reading Power delivers on that effective process approach with strategies and practice for strengthening comprehension skills, building vocabulary, increasing reading speed, and preparing for testing.
With expanded emphasis on vocabulary acquisition and learning strategies, and updated Extensive Reading sections, these new editions help beginning and intermediate-level students develop the multiple skills and strategies necessary for success. At each level, students focus on four skill areas: Extensive Reading Reading for Pleasure lets students select their own reading materials to practice 4.
Vocabulary Building trains students in a variety of strategies for learning new words, from personalized vocabulary lists to noticing collocations. Reading Comprehension covers skimming, scanning, recognizing topics and main ideas, understanding sentences, and making inferences.
Critical Thinking Skills upper levels involves targeted practice in inferential and analytical skills. Reading Faster helps students develop speed and flexibility in reading with high-interest, short fiction and non-fiction selections.
You just clipped your first slide!Alternatively, teachers can make use of activities in Unit 3 while students are reading the iction or noniction passages in Unit 2, expressing their reactions, and sharing views about their reading. The more quickly and accurately learners can make predictions and conirm them, the more luently they will read. First of all, for administrative reasons, teachers may need some tangible measure of students progress in this part of the course.
Previewing page Previewing is an essential skill that good readers make use of automatically. This makes it accessible outside of class time and to a larger number of students, and may also make possible additional funding to enlarge the collection.
Advanced Reading Power
Vocabulary Study Tools page 44 Dictionaries and Definitions page 44 Until recently it was believed that students should use only English-English dictionaries so they would have to think and study entirely in English. Teachers can make a collection of such noun phrases, taken either from the Student Book or from other sources, and ask students to identify the word that is the key to the meaning of each phrase and to the syntax of the sentence. For some students, these exercises can serve as a quick review, but others may need additional practice.
Pronunciation Pronunciation plays an important role in vocabulary learning and reading in two ways: Would someone you know enjoy this story?
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