Chapter 8. Quality Assurance and Quality Control. IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. 8. QUALITY CONTROL. INTRODUCTION. The focus on quality is one of the hallmarks of the lean production system. Quality is a major enabler of reduced costs. Faculty of engineering. Structural engineering program Quality control basics and systems. Published by: Mohamed Mahmoud Hashim Mohamed Salah Hamed.
|Language:||English, German, Japanese|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||19.88 MB|
|PDF File Size:||14.13 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
tailamephyli.gq QM Difference Between Quality Assurance And. Quality Control. February The summary of discussions at tailamephyli.gq PDF | Advanced technology requires to use products in a range of conditions what Quality control methods for product reliability and safety. PDF | Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa was first total quality management guru, who has been associated with the development and advocacy of using the.
And when it comes to specifications there are mainly two types: Performance Specifications and design Specifications. Importance of specifications: Presence of international standard specifications is very important and vital nowadays due to the following reasons: Quality Control QC is a system of routine technical activities, to measure and control the quality of the inventory as it is being developed.
QC activities include general methods such as accuracy checks on data acquisition and calculations and the use of approved standardized procedures for emission calculations, measurements, estimating uncertainties, archiving information and reporting. Higher tier QC activities include technical reviews of source categories, activity and emission factor data, and methods. Quality assurance is important in the engineering and construction industry because of the risk involved in any project.
The risk involved in not completing the project on time is high, because many external factors will affect the performance of the project. It is vital that a built-in quality assurance system is developed to avoid any inefficiency that could result in poor quality of products and service being delivered to the customer. One of these quality system standards is the ISO standard, which has been adopted by a large number of countries around the world and is applied in various industries including engineering and construction.
Quality Control Stages technical Technical Stuctural Design inspection on inspection while Revision materials execution processing and ensuring concrete stages of technical handiling of Before casting During casting After casting materials inspection specimen pricipels of taking sources of taking handling product materials ensuring source Primary Periodic out of site additional tests specimens specimens specimens certification rejecting Fig 1: Quality systems involve internal and external aspects.
The universal QMS systems: A QMS can be defined as: The main thrust of a QMS is in defining the processes, which will result in the production of quality products and services, rather than in detecting defective products or services after they have been produced.
Project quality management includes the processes and activities of performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the need for which it was undertaken.
These processes interact with each other and with all project activities, each occurs at least one time during the project, its applicable on any project, regardless to its nature, in this publication, each phase will be presented in terms of inputs needed, tools and techniques, and output.
It should be performed in parallel with other project planning processes.
Identifies stakeholders interests and their impact on quality 3-Cost performance baseline: Threats and opportunities that may impact quality requirements.
Tools and techniques of Quality Plan: Includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non conformance to requirements, appraising product quality to conform to requirements. Comparing actual or planned practices to those of comparable projects to identify best practices. Statistical method for which factors may influence specific variables of a product or a service.
Choosing part of population interest for inspection. Fig 4: Describes how project management team will implement the organization quality policy. Operational definition that describes project attribute and how quality control process will measure it. Details the steps for analyzing process to identify activities which enhance their values area to consider. Are results of quality control activities. They are used to analyze and evaluate quality standards. Tools and techniques of quality assurance: Discussed in plan quality tools and techniques and the section related to quality control tools and techniques will be discussed in the upcoming papers 2-Quality Audits: Team should have a working knowledge of statistical quality control, especially sampling and probability.
They must know the difference between the following pairs of terms: It may include modifications such as defect repair, revised work methods and revised schedules.
Tools and techniques of quality control: A run chart is a line graph that shows data points plotted in the order in which they occur.
Run charts show trends in a process over time, variation over time, or declines or improvements in a process over time. Trend analysis is performed using run charts and involves mathematical techniques to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. Trend analysis is often used to monitor: Fig 8: Retrieved 24 November When practiced as a management system, Six Sigma is a high performance system for executing business strategy.
Leaning into Six Sigma: Publishing Partners. The Project Management Hut. Project Quality Management: Why, What and How. Ross Publishing. Outline Index. Descriptive statistics. Mean arithmetic geometric harmonic Median Mode. Central limit theorem Moments Skewness Kurtosis L-moments. Index of dispersion. Grouped data Frequency distribution Contingency table.
Pearson product-moment correlation Rank correlation Spearman's rho Kendall's tau Partial correlation Scatter plot. Data collection. Sampling stratified cluster Standard error Opinion poll Questionnaire. Scientific control Randomized experiment Randomized controlled trial Random assignment Blocking Interaction Factorial experiment. Adaptive clinical trial Up-and-Down Designs Stochastic approximation. Cross-sectional study Cohort study Natural experiment Quasi-experiment.
Statistical inference. Likelihood-ratio Lagrange multiplier Wald.
Z -test normal Student's t -test F -test. Bayesian probability prior posterior Credible interval Bayes factor Bayesian estimator Maximum posterior estimator.
Quality Control in Production Processes
Correlation Regression analysis. Pearson product-moment Partial correlation Confounding variable Coefficient of determination. Simple linear regression Ordinary least squares General linear model Bayesian regression. Regression Manova Principal components Canonical correlation Discriminant analysis Cluster analysis Classification Structural equation model Factor analysis Multivariate distributions Elliptical distributions Normal.
Spectral density estimation Fourier analysis Wavelet Whittle likelihood. Nelson—Aalen estimator. Log-rank test. Personnel will have written job descriptions which will clearly define their roles and responsibilities, and the processes and SOPs which they have to follow.
An auditing function, independent of the operational units and the quality control system, is created to plan, conduct, and report internal and external audits and to support and monitor their close-out via appropriate corrective actions and preventive actions CAPA plan.
A system is put in place to a share audit and regulatory inspection findings and learning with the relevant functional units and top management, b promote auditing-in-tandem, and cross-pollination of auditors, c track all internal and external audits, customer audits and regulatory inspections, and d track status of findings open, closed or pending made during audits and regulatory inspections. Liaison is maintained with functional units, affiliates, and human resources for continued personal and professional development basic and advanced knowledge-based and skill-based training and retraining of employees worldwide.
Liaison is maintained with and between functional units and affiliates to promote standardization, improve communication, and to enhance efficiency of quality systems through cooperation. All functional units and affiliates are kept up-to-date with various established and emerging local, national, regional and international legal, ethical and regulatory standards. Continual quality improvement initiatives adoption of industry best practices: determination, development, implementation and monitoring of key performance indicators; and internal and external benchmarking are identified, implemented and monitored via the Plan—Do—Check—Act P—D—C—A cycle.
Generally, the activity consists of the process of establishing determining, formulating, and issuing and implementing standards. Therefore, standards are the ultimate result of a standardization activity and within the context of quality systems consist of quality documents or documents related to the quality systems.
The quality documents consist of Company policies, quality management plan, SOPs, working instructions, conventions, guidelines, forms, templates, logs, tags and labels. They are established by consensus and approved by a nominated body and they provide for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results with a view to promote transparency, consistency, reproducibility, interchangeability and to facilitate communication.
The hierarchy and types of quality documents relevant to quality systems will depend upon Company business objectives and business model.
Production and Operations Management Related Tutorials
SOPs are Level 2 quality documents and, along with other relevant quality documents, ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of quality systems. SOPs establish a systematic way of doing work and ensure that work is done consistently by all persons who are required to do the same task. SOPs must be well written in order to provide an effective control of GCP and prevent errors from occurring, thereby minimizing waste and rework.
Poorly written SOPs are a source of misinformation. To be user friendly, they should be clear, unambiguous and must be written in plain language. SOPs are controlled documents and are best written by persons involved in the activity, process or function that is required to be specified or covered in the SOP. SOPs must be reviewed prior to their approval for release, for adequacy, completeness and compliance with Company standards and all applicable legal, ethical and regulatory requirements.
They must be reviewed and updated as required over their life cycle and any changes made to the SOPs must be re-approved. They must bear a revision status on them and their distribution must always be documented and controlled. When obsolete SOPs are required to be retained for any purpose, they should be suitably identified to prevent unintended use.
Only relevant SOPs in their current version must be available at points of use and must remain legible.Zone B is 2 sigma away from the mean yellow.
Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures
Quality Management: Higher tier QC activities include technical reviews of source categories, activity and emission factor data, and methods. Category Portal Commons WikiProject. By joseph c. Inspection is a major component of quality control, where physical product is examined visually or the end results of a service are analyzed. And in order to do that, a new science called Quality control was introduced.
Download pdf. Design detailed the process to meet the customer needs. A standard specification is an explicit set of requirements for an item, material, component, system or service.