Good microbiological laboratory practice (GMLP). 3 Basic Pract Book 2/ 11/06 am Page 1 . Suitability for level of practical microbiological work. Practical Microbiology: based on the Hungarian practical notes entitled " Mikrobiológiai This book is freely available for research and educational purposes. Practical Medical Microbiology Dr. Chandra Prakash Bhatt, PhD A.K. Books and Educational Enterprises This book is dedicated to MY LATE FATHER DEV.

Microbiology Practical Book

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HANDBOOK OF PRACTICAL MICROBIOLOGY FOR PHARMACY STUDNETS. Book · August with Reads. Cite this publication. Practical microbiology written by Professor Dr. R. C. Dubey and Dr. D. K. Maheshwari is a good book for the students of microbiology and biotechnology. This microbiology laboratory manual is designed especially for the non-majors, health science microbiology the clinical specimen and provides practical insight and experience. .. books, papers, or other items not needed for the work. 3.

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ISBN hardcover: Microbiology--Handbooks, manuals, etc. Goldman, Emanuel. Green, Lorrence H. QW 52 P ] QR Lorrence H. Green To the memory of Salvador Luria.

Emanuel Goldman v 5. ChallisChapter 2 Quantitation of Microorganisms LeeChapter 3 Culturing and Preserving Microorganisms.

GreenChapter 4 Stains for Light Microscopy. Peter M. Musser, and Nellie B. DumasChapter 7 Plaque Assay for Bacteriophage Rees and Martin J.

Green vii 6.

DeMarco and Stephen A. LernerChapter 12 Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Morphology and Biochemistry Maxim Suvorov, Jed F. GreenChapter 16 Epidemiological Methods in Microbiology Michael Janda and Sharon L. AbbottChapter 18 The Genus Pseudomonas PalleroniChapter 19 The Family Neisseriaceae Fischetti and Patricia Ryan 7.

Contents ixChapter 24 The Genus Bacillus Zeigler and John B. PerkinsChapter 25 The Genus Clostridium GillespieChapter 29 Chlamydia BahamondeChapter 30 Mycoplasma and Related Organisms. Meghan May, Robert F. Whitcomb, and Daniel R.

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BrownChapter 31 The Genus Mycobacteria Campodonico and Craig R. RoyChapter 33 The Genus Haemophilus AddersonChapter 34 The Genus Listeria FieldsChapter 36 The Genus Helicobacter Vellozzi and Edmund R. GiuglianoChapter 37 The Genus Yersinia Sharp 8. Stenson and Mark S. PepplerChapter 39 Other Zoonotic Bacteria Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Tannerella, and Fusobacterium Zambon and Violet I.

HaraszthyChapter 41 Introduction to Archaea Bacteriophages as Natural, Self-Replicating Antimicrobials Frederick L. SchusterChapter 46 Introduction to Yeasts David H. PincusChapter 47 Introduction to Virology Ken S. Compiled by Emanuel GoldmanIndex PrefaceThe first edition of the Practical Handbook of Microbiology was published in Since that time,the field of microbiology has undergone many changes and has grown to encompass other disci-plines as well.

New chapters have been added and a number of chapters from the first edition weredropped. Tables in the first edition that were outdated have been replaced by tables in the individualchapters. This edition also contains a new broad and concise survey table of selected eubacteria.

Areas generally considered part of microbiology that were not covered or covered only briefly in thefirst edition are now included with comprehensive introductory chapters. This book was written to provide basic knowledge and practical information about workingwith microorganisms, in a clear and concise form. Although of use to anyone interested in the sub-ject matter, the book is intended to especially benefit two groups of microbiologists: We hope our readers will share our enthusiasm for microbiology and find this book to beuseful.

She saw the need for thebook, cultivated a relationship with the scientific editors, and facilitated the process of approvalsand preparation of this large project. Most of the contributors to the first edition were no longeravailable to update their chapters, although we were able to locate a few who were still active in thefield and were willing to contribute to the second edition, for which we are most grateful. Finally, this bookwould not have been possible without the great efforts of so many contributors.

We salute them all. Emanuel Goldman Lorrence H. Green xiii He performed postdoctoral research at Harvard Medi- cal School and at the University of California, Irvine, before join- ing the faculty of New Jersey Medical School in , where he rose through the ranks to Professor in Among his awards and honors, Dr.

Among several areas of research activity, he has focused on the role of tRNA inelongation of bacterial protein synthesis, including uncharged tRNA, codon bias, and programmedtranslational frameshifts. Green, president of Westbury Diagnostics, Inc. In , Dr.

Green moved into indus- try by joining Analytab Products Inc. During the next twelve years he helped to invent and manufacture over 40 diagnostic test kits, and rose to become the director of New Product Development and Product Support.

Green founded Westbury Diagnostics, Inc. In addition to his work at Westbury, Dr. Green has also served as an adjunct associate professor of microbiology at the New York Collegeof Osteopathic Medicine, and as an adjunct assistant professor of biology at Farmingdale State Col-lege of the State University of New York.

His long-term interest is the use of technology in the development of commercial products. He alsoenjoys providing mentorship and career advice to students at all levels.

He has spoken at manycareer day events, and judged many regional science fairs. ContributorsSharon L. BrownLourdes G. Bahamonde Eva M.

GiuglianoNellie B.

Microbiology Practical Manual, 1st Edition

Fields Sarah T. HaraszthyJed F. Contributors xixIrvin N. Musser Wadsworth CenterVincent J. PalleroniPeter S. LernerDepartment of Medicine Charles S. Rees Trevor H.

Schuster U. Shukla Daniel R. From the days of early food preservation using fermentation of milk prod-ucts and smoking of meats to extend the shelf life of foods, practical needs have contributed to thedevelopment of these techniques. Formal development of clinical medical settings led to an awareness of the cause and effects ofdisease.

These observations contributed to the techniques developed by Joseph Lister, Oliver Wen-dell Holmes, and Ignaz Semmelweis that prevented disease transmission between patients.

Society continues to shape our needs today, with the rampant evolution of drug-resistantmicrobes, a high nosocomial-infection rate in patient-care facilities, and the development of explor-atory and permanently inserted medical devices. In addition, the threat of bioterrorism introducesthe potential for the introduction of pathogenic microbes into both a type and breadth of environ-ment not considered in the past.

Our requirements for sterilization, antisepsis, and sanitizing thus go beyond the historical needsof the research and clinical laboratories and commercial production requirements. This chapter notonly reviews commonly used laboratory techniques, but also specifically addresses their limitationwhen used to reduce or eliminate bacteria on materials that were not originally designed to be steril-ized or disinfected.

When using heat, it may be either dry heat ormoist heat. Disinfection is the process that eliminates most or all microorganisms, with the exception ofendospores. Disinfectants can be further subcategorized as high-level disinfectants, which kill allmicroorganisms with the exception of large numbers of endospores with an exposure time of less 3 Antiseptics destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms in or on living tissues and can alsobe referred to as biocides [2].

Disinfectants are used on inanimate objects and can be sporostatic butare not usually sporocidal [2]. Steam sterilization or dry heat can be monitored by the use of biological indicators or by chemi-cal test strips that turn color upon having met satisfactory conditions.

These indicators are widelyavailable. Usually the spores of species of Geobacillus or Bacillus spp. Growth of the spores in liquid media after the cycle of sterilization is complete indicates theload was not successfully sterilized. In the days following September 11, , letters containing the spores and cells of Bacillusanthracis were mailed to several news media offices and to two U.

This introduced apathogen into sites where the methods of safe handling or eradication of the pathogen were not inexistence. A number of laboratories conducted experiments on the potential dispersal, detection,and eradication of organisms spread by such an event.

For example, Lemieux et al. A single cycle did not effectively decontaminate the BDR. Only autoclave cycles of min at Two standardcycles at 40 min and The authors state It was found that both the packing density and mate-rial type of the BDR significantly impacted the effectiveness of the decontamination process. Therefore, when standard laboratory methods are used for materials made of unusual substancesand density, not normally used in a laboratory, the method of sterilization must be monitored andtailored independently of that substance.

Standard laboratory methods based on different and lowerautoclave packing levels and lower density materials may not be effective. Solutions containing heat-labile components require a different approach. Filtration is generallythe most accepted and easiest method. The FDA and industry consider 0. Usually a delay of 48 hours hr is required for the colony development of Br.

Griffiths et al. These organisms were detected after only 24 hr of incubation by either fluorescence orbioluminescence. They state that this method may aid in preventing quality control backlogs duringfilter manufacturing processes. Filter integrity for sterilization is usually done by a bubble test to confirm the pore size of themanufactured filter [5, 7].

The bubble point is based on the fact that liquid is held in the pores of thefilter usually membrane by surface tension and capillary forces, and the bubble pressure detectsthe least amount of pressure than can displace the liquid out of the pores of the filter. While most solutions used in molecular biology and microbiology laboratories will be ade-quately sterilized with a 0.

The removal of contaminants from air may be necessary in the case of fermentation or drugmanufacturing in chemical reactions requiring some form of gas. Various types of filters are avail-able for the removal of organisms from air. In this particular scenario,the operator must assess their needs for how critical the product sterility i.

In some cases, a filter is used to recover bacteria from dilute solutions of bacteria such asenvironmental water samples. The organism of significance whose retention on the filter is mostimportant should determine the filter pore size. The smaller the filter pore size, the slower thesample flow rate and throughput.

In one study performed by Millipore, filtrationwith a 0.

In some cases, the use of the larger 0. It is important to note that all filter sterilization is relative. While a 0. Everysample type and the level of permissible substances in the filtrate must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. For example, filter-sterilization of water or solutions used in atomic force microscopymight still allow enough small viruses and other particulates through to interfere with sample inter-pretation, and therefore ultra-pure water may be needed.

Disinfectants and AntisepticsThe regulation of disinfectants and antiseptics falls under the jurisdiction of different agencies,depending on where the chemical will be used. Labeling terminology can also be confusing, as the FDA uses the same terminology as the CDC[critical sterilization , semi-critical high and intermediate , and non-critical low-level disinfec-tion ], while the EPA registers environmental disinfectants based on the claims of the manufacturerat the time of registration i.

In addition, the use of disinfectants varies globally. While these practices are common for daily runs of the autoclave, this is used less often whengeneral low-level disinfection occurs on non-critical surfaces. Disinfectants are often tested against cultures of the following bacteria: Pseudomonas aeru-ginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhuimuium, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Pevotellaintermeida, Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomiticans, Bacteriodies fragilis,and Escherichia coli [13].

One common approach is to use the broth dilution method, wherein astandard concentration of the organism is tested against increasing dilutions of the disinfectant. Theminimum inhibitory concentration MIC of the organism is then determined. While there are many reports of liquid disinfectant activity against liquid cultures, biofilms ofthe aforementioned organisms have survived when the liquid culture of the same organism has beenkilled [13]. Therefore, biofilm disinfection must be evaluated separately.

Better efficacy in biofilmprevention and removal has been demonstrated by the use anti-biofilm products compared to deter-gent disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds [14].

Practical Handbook of Microbiology

One problem with most disinfectants and antiseptics is their short effective life span. Hospitalsand laboratories today are challenged with multiple drug-resistant organisms that may be transmit-ted from surfaces. Additionally, it can be used on animate or inani-mate objects. Rutala and Weber [15] See cited reference for refined values for each organism. Disinfection of HandsOne of the most important areas for infection control is the degerming and disinfection of thehands.

Microbial control 55 Culture of bacteria and cultural characteristics 64 Culture media 68 Aerobic and Anaerobic culture 76 Blood culture 79 Urine culture 85 Cerebrospinal fluid culture 94 Sexually transmitted disease 98 Respiratory tract infection Mycobacterium culture Gastrointestinal tract infection Pus culture Eye infection Body fluids culture Pyrexia of unknown origin PUO Water borne disease Food borne disease Antibiotic sensitivity test Biochemical tests Serological tests used for diagnosis of microbial diseases Antistreptolysin O ASO test Complement fixation test C-reactive protein CRP test Dick test Elek test Lepromin test Quellung test Rheumatoid factor RF test Schick test Serological diagnosis of human immuno deficiency virus Serological diagnosis of syphilis Tuberculin skin test Bhatt Dr.

He has written and published five books: C. Bhatt, Mrs L Bhatta. Animals, found in our surrounding Children's book.Isolation of seed mycoflora. Table Types of condensers Condenser type Abbe Aplanatic Achromatic Aplanatic achromatic Aberrations corrected Spherical Chromatic X X X X Principle involved in the magnification of the object In biconcave lens, if the object is placed between focal length f and 2f, the image is enlarged.

Part VII: Two standardcycles at 40 min and This book provides comprehensive coverage of the practical aspects of the subject and colour plates enhance understanding of the text. Bhatt Practical Medical Microbiology Dr. The morecommonly used standard is the 0. Green moved into indus- try by joining Analytab Products Inc.